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The raid standard for the Samoyed is managed as FCI standard No. 212 at the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). He describes the general appearance of a Samoyed as an animal that "conveys the impression of strength, endurance, suppleness, dignity, and self-confidence coupled with charm" . The so-called "smile" of the Samoyed is called a characteristic feature; This unusual expression for dogs is produced by the combination of the eye shape and position with the gentle angles directed upwards. The character of the Samoyed is said to be "friendly, open-minded, alert, and lively with a very low level of hunting instinct"  and "very sociable"; Samoyedes are said to be "not shy or aggressive". Despite their previous use as guard dogs, they are now considered unsuitable for this use.

The ideal height at the withers of a Samoyed is 57 (male) or 53 centimeters (female), with a deviation of 3 centimeters upwards or downwards being tolerated. The male weighs between 20 and 25 kilograms, the female between 16 and 20 kilograms. The head should be strong and wedge-shaped, the neck strong and medium. The body is somewhat longer than high, deep and compact, yet supple. The rod is supposed to be "quite high" and is "bent in the movement or in an attentive position [...] from the beginning over the back or the side, but may hang down in resting position".

A special feature of the Samoyed is the hair-dress, which should be "lush, thick, elastic, and dense"; It originally served as a natural protection in the Polarklima. The coat is pure white, white and beige or cream. The original Samoyeds also appeared in other fur colors such as brown or black. However, this does not correspond to today's breeding standards. In contrast to other sled dogs, blue or two differently colored eyes are a breeding error.
Breeding and use

Samojeden were originally used by the tribe of the Nenets (Samoyed) as working dogs, huskies, guard dogs and guard dogs. In her book The Samoyed, Erna Bossi describes the earlier use of this Nordic dog breed: "They guarded their reindeer herds, defended them against attacking wolves and bears and were their hunting companions. Sometimes they were also strained in front of the sleds. [...] Man and animal were dependent on one another and lived in the closest communion with each other. At night the dogs were also allowed to go to the tent and served as a bed warmers. They were regarded as full members of the family ".

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Samoyedes were used as sled dogs by European and American researchers in Arctic and Antarctic. An early mention of the ancestors of today's Samoyedes can be found in the reports of the failed North Pole expedition of Fridtjof Nansen of 1894; The animals are described as very persistent, they could cover 95 kilometers in a stretch without being fed.

The British zoologist Ernest Kilburn-Scott brought first specimens to England in 1889 and is considered the founder of Samojed. His design for a racial standard saw two types of Samoyedes: one was somewhat leggy, but stable, the coat was snow-white; The other was a bearish type with small, hairy ears and strong paws with thick bales. These basic types are still found in the framework of the standards permitted by the breeding standard. The first racial standard dates back to 1909.

The first copies were sent to the United States around 1904. In 1913, Samoyedes were officially recognized as a dog breed. 1923 was founded in the USA as the first breeding club of the Samoyed Club of America. An intensive breeding began in the first post-war years around 1946, however the popularity of the Samoyeden increased only from approximately 1956 on to a significant extent.

In Germany, the German Club of Nordic Dog Breeds (DCNH), founded in 1968, is responsible for compliance with breeding standards.

Samojeden are also bred on a large scale in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden, Norway and for some time also in Spain. Even in Zimbabwe, there is a small kennel. The animals bred there should have adapted surprisingly well to the climatic conditions.

Although Samojeden are actually working dogs, they are used today mainly as house, family or exhibition dogs as well as occasionally in the dog sport, for example in Agility, with good success. Rarely are they used as sledges in huskies, as they are very persistent, but less fast than Huskys, and less powerful than Malamutes.

Quelle: de.wikipedia.org/wiki

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